THE ENTREPRENEURIAL VALUE OF ARTS INCUBATORS: WHY FINE ARTISTS SHOULD MAKE USE OF PROFESSIONAL ARTS INCUBATORS

Marco Thom

Abstract


The study's aim is to show whether and to what extent services of entrepreneurial value could be provided by arts incubators to nurture fine artists to meet market requirements to make a living in the arts. In order to achieve this aim, the study is first focused on the clarification of the question to what extent fine artists are currently educated in their studies at higher educational institutions on how to become successfully self-employed. The answer to this question is needed to outline the current mismatch between vocational education of fine artists and actual market requirements. A comprehensive and comparative analysis of Fine Art degree programs and extracurricular training offerings at higher educational institutions and arts incubation programs in the UK and Germany was carried out. By using various key performance indicators this study shows evidence that fine artists are not  educated to successfully meet market requirements and that professional arts incubators could be a promising alternative or useful addition for fine artists' vocational preparation.  


Full Text:

PDF

References


Abbing, H. (1999). Why are Artists Poor? The Exceptional Economy of the Arts. Amsterdam University Press

Allen, D.N. & Rahman, S., (1985). Small Business Incubators: A Positive Environment for Entrepreneurship. Journal of Small Business Management, 23 (3), pp.12-22.

Artists Interaction and Representation (AIR). (2011). Big Artists Survey 2011 – The results. Retrieved from https://www.a-n.co.uk/air/big-artists-survey-2011-the-results-1

Arts Council England. (2011). Review of the Arts Council’s Strategic Framework. Retrieved from http://www.artscouncil.org.uk

Bachelor.de. (2014). ECTS-System. Retrieved from http://www.bachelor.de/ects-system.htm

Baines, D. & Kennedy, C. (2010). An Education For Independence. Should entrepreneurial skills be an essential part of the journalist’s toolbox? JournalismPractice, 4 (1), 1-7.

Bennett, D. (2009). Careers in Dance: Beyond Performance tot he Real World of Work. Journal of Dance Education, 9 (1), 27-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15290824.2009.10387381

Bundesverband Bildender Künstlerinnen und Künstler e.V. (BBK). (2011). Die wirtschaftliche und soziale Situation Bildender Künstlerinnen und Künstler. Ergebnisse BBK Umfrage 2011 [The economic and social situation of fine artists: The results of the BBK survey 2011] Berlin: Bundesverband Bildender Künstlerinnen und Künstler e.V.

Campbell, C., Kendrick, R.C. & Samuelson, D.S., (1985). Stalking the Latent Entrepreneur: Business Incubators and Economic Development. Economic Development Review, 3 (2), pp.43-49.

Centre for Economics and Business Research Ltd. (CEBR). (2013). The Contribution of the Arts and Culture to the National Economy. An analysis of the macroeconomic contribution of the arts and culture and of some of their indirect contributions through spillover effects felt in the wider economy. Retrieved from http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/media/uploads/pdf/CEBR_economic-report-web-version-0513.pdf

Cobb, P., Ball, S. & Hogan, F.(eds.), (2011). The Profitable Artist. A Handbook for all Artists in the Performing, Literary, and Visual Arts. New York: Allworth Press

Cockpit Arts (, 2013). The Cockpit Effect 2012. Retrieved from http://www.cockpitarts.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/Cockpit-Effect-2012.pdf

Department for Business Innovation & Skills, (2013). Small Business Survey 2012. Growth Special Report. [Online] Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/204183/bis-13-883-small-business-survey-2012-growth-special-report.pdf

DeTienne, D.R. & Chandler, G.N. (2004). Opportunity Identification and Its Role in the Entrepreneurial Classroom: A Pedagogical Approach and Empirical Test. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 3, 242-257. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMLE.2004.14242103

de Wolf, P. & Schoorlemmer, H. (eds.). (2007). Exploring the Significance of Entrepreneurship in Agriculture. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture.

Erlewine, M. & Gerl, E. (eds). (2004). A Comprehensive Guide to Business Incubation. Athens: NBIA Publications

Essig, L. (2014). Failure is a Necessary Condition: How Universities Measure the Success of Their Arts Venture Incubators. Retrieved from http://sbaer.uca.edu/research/USASBE/2013/6.pdf

Faltin, G. (2001). Creating a Culture of Innovative Entrepreneurship. Journal of International Business and Economy, 123-140.

Faltin, G. (2007). Erfolgreich gründen: Der Unternehmer als Künstler und Komponist. [Being successful in starting up a business – The entrepreneur as artist and composer] Berlin: DIHK Deutscher Industrie- und Handelskammertag.

Faltin, G. (2008). Kopf schlägt Kapital: Die ganz andere Art, ein Unternehmen zu gründen. Von der Lust, ein Entrepreneur zu sein. [Go with your Head – An unusual way to start a business. About the passion of being an entrepreneur] - München: Carl Hanser Verlag. http://dx.doi.org/10.3139/9783446418059

Frank, R. H., & Cook, P. J. (1996). The Winner-Takes-All Society. Why the few at the top get so much more than the rest of us. New York: Penguin Books

Freiling, J. & Laudien, S.M., (2013). Explaining New Venture Failure: A Competence-based Approach. Conference Paper AIMS 2013, 1-7. Retrieved from http://cdiaims2013.sciencesconf.org/conference/cdiaims2013/pages/cdiaims2013_Freiling_Laudien.pdf

Gibb, A. (1998). Entrepreneurial Core Capacities, Competitiveness and Management Development in the 21st Century. Research Paper, Durham University Business School, 14.

Hansen, M.T., Chesbrough, N.N. & Sull, D.N., (2000). Networked Incubators: Hothouses of the New Economy. Harvard Business Review, 74-84.

Hörig, M. (2010). Credit systems and Learning outcomes in Europe. Presentation European University Association, 15. April 2010. Retrieved May 16, 2014 from http://www.eua.be/fileadmin/user_upload/files/newsletter2010/MiH_ECTS_LO_Asem_berlin_15042010_rev.pdf

InternationalStaff. (2014). Academic Year. Retrieved from http://www.internationalstaff.ac.uk/education/academic-year/

Landwehr, S. (2005). Know-how-Management bei der Gründung innovativer Unternehmen. [The know-how management of innovative business start-ups] (Doctoral dissertation). Erlangen: Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-322-82052-5

McGrath, R.G. & MacMillan, I. (2000). The Entrepreneurial Mindset: Strategies for Continuously Creating Opportunity in an Age of Uncertainty. Boston: Harvard Business School Press

NBIA National Business Incubation Association. (2010). Best Practices in Action: Guidelines for Implementing First-Class Business Incubation Programs (2nd ed.). Athens: NBIA Publications.

Nobel, C., (2011). Why Companies Fail And How Their Founders Can Bounce Back. Harvard Business School, 1-2.

Oberschachtsiek, D. (2008). Founders’ Experience and Self-employment Duration: The Importance of Being a

‘Jack-of-all-trades’; An Analysis Based on Competing Risks. Institute for Employment Research, 40, 1-27.

Pollard, V. & Wilson, E. (2013). The “Entrepreneurial Mindset†in Creative and Performing Arts Higher Education in Australia. Artivate: A Journal of Entrepreneurship in the Arts, 3 (1), 3-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1234/artivate.v3i1.67

Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education (QAA), (2008). Higher Education Credit Framework for England: Guidance on Academic Credit Arrangements in Higher Education in England. Retrieved from http://www.qaa.ac.uk/publications/informationandguidance/documents/creditframework.pdf

Rudmann, C. (2008). Entrepreneurial Skills and their Role in Enhancing the Relative Independence of Farmers. Results and Recommendations from the Research Project Developing Entrepreneurial Skills of Farmers. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture.

Schumpeter, J.A. (2003). The Theory of Economic Development. In: J.G. Backhaus (Ed.), Joseph Alois Schumpeter: Entrepreneurship, Style And Vision (pp.61-116). Boston: Kluwer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/0-306-48082-4_3

Smith, E.E. & Perks, S. (2006). Training Interventions Needed for Developing Black Micro-entrepreneurial Skills in the Informal Sector: A Qualitative Perspective. Journal of Human Resource Management, 4, 17-26.

Statistisches Bundesamt (destatis). (2010). Selbständige in Deutschland. Ergebnisse des Mikrozensus 2008. Wirtschaft und Statistik 12/2009 [Self-employed Persons in Germany: The Results of the Microcensus 2008. Economics and Statistics 12/2009], (pp. 1204-1217). Retrieved from https://www.destatis.de/DE/Publikationen/WirtschaftStatistik/Arbeitsmarkt/SelbststaendigeDeutschland.pdf?__blob=publicationFile

Stokes, D. & Wilson, N. (2010). Small Business Management and Entrepreneurship (6th ed.) Andover: Cengage Learning EMEA.

Studieninformation Baden-Württemberg. (2014). Leistungspunkte (ECTS-Punkte) [Credit Points]. Retrieved from https://www.studieninfo-bw.de/studieren/bachelormaster/leistungspunkte_ects_punkte/

Stuetzer, M., Obschonka, M., Davidsson, P. & Schmitt-Rodermund, E., (2013). Where Do Entrepreneurial Skills Come From? Applied Economics Letters, 20 (12), 1183-1186.

Swedberg, R. (2006). The Cultural Entrepreneur and the Creatice Industries: Beginning in Vienna. Journal of Cultural Economics, 30, 243-261. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10824-006-9016-5

Thom, M. (2011). Business Incubation – How to Manage the Know-how Transfer (master’s thesis). München: GRIN Verlag

Thom, M. (2015). The Suffering of Arts Entrepreneurs: Will Fine Art Students be Educated on How to Become Successfully Self-Employed? A Comparative Analysis of Fine Art Education at Higher Educational Institutions in the UK and Germany. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 3(1), pp.64-77. http://dx.doi.org/10.11114/jets.v3il.587

Tuning Educational Structures in Europe. (2014). Educational structures, Learning outcomes, Workload and the Calculation of ECTS credits. Retrieved May 16, 2014 from http://www.unideusto.org/tuningeu/workload-a-ects/177.html

UKBI United Kingdom Business Incubation Ltd., 2009. Best Practice in Business Incubation: The complete best practice handbook. Birmingham.

Vesala, K.M. & Pyysiäinen, J. (2008). Understanding Entrepreneurial Skills in the Farm Context. Final Report on the main study of the EU-funded project Developing Entrepreneurial Skills of Farmers.

Welsh, D.H.B., Onishi, T., DeHoog, R.H. & Syed, S. (2014). Responding to the Needs and Challenges of Arts Entrepreneurs: An Exploratory Study of Arts Entrepreneurship in North Carolina Higher Education. Artivate: A Journal of Entrepreneurship in the Arts, 3 (2), 21-37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1234/artivate.v3i2.75

Zhigao, C., Ling, M. & Xiangyun, C., (2006). Knowledge Deployment and Knowledge Network: Critical Factors in Building Advantage of Business Incubator Knowledge Service. Services Operations and Logistics, and Informatics, 2006. SOLI’06. IEEE International Conference on 21-23 June 2006, pp.244-249.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2015 Marco Thom

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Artivate is published by Arizona State University Herberger Institute for Design and the Arts Enterprise and Entrepreneurship Programs.
Photography credit: Tim Trumble Photography ©Arizona Board of Regents. All rights reserved.